existing inequalities in south african education

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The Coleman Report of 1966 set the standard for the study of public school education, and indicated that a child with better educated parents and more educational resources at home is bound to succeed at school and later on in life. I. Nattrass, Nicoli. Those who can afford fee-charging schools are able to set their children on a trajectory of success. A number of existing drugs are also being tested for whether they can potentially treat Covid-19. Laura Jardine Paterson is the head of communications at Codi in Lebanon. We use cookies on this site to understand how you use our content, and to give you the best browsing experience. Inequalities between social classes and countries combine with discrimination based on gender, race, culture and sexual orientation to form patterns of poverty and exclusion that pervade South Africa, the world today. Similarly, the shocking levels of social inequality in South Africa is hardly in issue since South Africa ranks amongst one of the most unequal societies on earth (Southall, 2016). So where does this all leave the majority of children and young adults around the country who exit this dual schooling system that clearly continues to cater for the privileged whilst leaving the impoverished none the better? Staff Writer 9 April 2019. Travelling to and from school is also a concern, given the difficulty of social distancing on crowded public and learner transport. While parents across the city are deeply concerned about their children’s education, many do not have the access to devices, data, electricity or stationary to make remote learning a possibility. Data from the study showed that almost 8 out of 10 South African children in Grade 4 cannot read for understanding. Subscribe. The 2018 Quarterly Labour Force Survey reported a NEET (not in education, employment or training) rate of 39% for South African youth – that is 39% of youth in the country who have not found the light at the end of the tunnel. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study, Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality, Cyclone Idai: Tough Press Laws Hinder Reporting From Mozambique, The list: Free courses online to help your job prospects in 2021, Brackenfell High School is a symptom of South Africa’s biggest disease: racism, South Africa: What's Behind Violence in South Africa – a Sociologist's Perspective | Great Today News, 5 Essential Tips for Remote Working Productivity during the COVID19 pandemic, He went from unemployed to e-hailing entrepreneur in the pandemic, The List: Korean content everyone needs to watch. Fee-charging schools are also able to attract higher qualified educators and principals, thus building on the credibility of the institution. Research Triangle Park: Research Triangle International. On March 27, South Africa entered a total lockdown that would end up lasting five weeks. ‘Education in South Africa is in crisis,’ declared Tshepo Motsepe, General Secretary of Equal Education, a social movement campaigning for ‘quality and equality in South African schools’. Imiqhayi School, Mount Coke, King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. If people’s parents are out of work, reflects Noxy, in Delft, ‘how are they going to feed their families and to pay school fees at the same time?’ While there have been some social security interventions, such as the grant increases, some have argued that they were not good enough and will not effectively alleviate the problems caused by the lockdown. Pretoria: National Education Evaluation and Development Unit. Informal workers may need some time to recover and be able to afford the necessities to send their children back to school. (2009). If young people are well educated more jobs can be filled and unemployment rates will drop. These resource issues are compounded by the challenge of finding space to study. When all the spaces and services that poorer citizens can access are marked by the city’s rampant inequality, there is no level foundation on which to build a better tomorrow. Bad Behavior has blocked 1167 access attempts in the last 7 days. Of the top 200 schools in the country, 185 are former white-only schools and all 185 charge significant fees, keeping the majority of black learners locked out of these quality schools. As our diarists reflect, having enough space to live, let alone learn, remains difficult in the poorer corners of Cape Town. In short, those currently struggling to learn from home face a risky return to sub-par schooling. Since Lockdown was announced seven weeks ago, there has been much talk of an education crisis in the country, as young people on the economic margins have struggled without the resources to learn from home. Can It Ever Revive? There is, however, a much darker side to the inequality in schools across South Africa that goes far beyond below par pass rates and learner achievement. Educational inequality is the unequal distribution of academic resources, including but not limited to; school funding, qualified and experienced teachers, books, and technologies to socially excluded communities.These communities tend to be historically disadvantaged and oppressed. Prince, R. (2018). He was speaking in 2017, a year after the government had promised to ensure that all schools in South Africa had access to water and sanitation, a promise that they had broken. Although some schools managed to distribute printed resources, many have been reportedly left without any resources or support. Poor schools are then left with the leftovers of teachers who hold very limited disciplinary knowledge. Unlike much of the developing world, South Results from the 2015 Trends In International Maths and Science Study (TIMSS) shows that only 48% of black Grade 3 learners pass mathematics, while 85% of white learners succeed in passing. Reform of South Africa’s existing public education protocols is necessary for the success-hungry young population and the economy. © 2020 The Daily Vox - Citizen | Speak | Amplify, Educational Inequality: The Dark Side Of SA’s Education System, The list: Free courses online to help your job prospects in…, Journalist Abra Barbier on journalism in South Africa in 2020, Brackenfell High School is a symptom of South Africa’s biggest disease:…, TL;DR: A roundup of SRC elections from across the country, Social enterprise ThankYou has a plan to end extreme poverty, Uganda Elections: People are scared but they are willing to vote, This is what Biden must do to reverse some of Trump’s…, Kamala Harris: Representation does not equal better policies, Riz Ahmed is searching for home in Mogul Mowgli, The calls for Basic Income Grant, explained, Calls for international cooperation against corporate exploitation, If you’re struggling you may be eligible for relief on your…, The DA’s Deluded or Demagogue Approach To Stellenbosch University, Calling myself “Coloured” gives me the ability to choose new meanings…, Food Aid Parcels In South Africa Could Do With A Better…, Here’s what you need to know about the COVID-19 vaccine, What vaccine hoarding will mean for international travel, New review report identifies crossroads for South Africa’s social justice sector, Thinking out loud: Why do we kneel before charlatans in the…, South African Universities And The COVID-19 Lockdown. South Africa is a land of hope, opportunity and most glaringly, a land of stark inequality. Leafy suburbs like Sandton boast world-class institutions with top-of-art facilities, whilst neighbouring Alexandra township schools are often victims of violence, poor infrastructure and a lack of resources. The knowledge that these educators are able to pass down to their learners is rudimentary at best, thus fuelling the inequalities that already exist in learners’ attainment of educational outcomes. II. Meanwhile, social distancing will be more attainable in affluent schools that have better infrastructure and more manageable class sizes. Six Charts Explain South Africa's Inequality . To find out more about cookies and change your preferences, visit our, Everyday support in lockdown shows Cape Town is a city of many stories. “Preliminary work on the development of vaccines has started with UCT, CSIR and Biovac. Their takes on the ‘back to school’ debate differ, but on one thing they agree: there are no easy answers when two crises collide. The key insight from this discussion is that both more and better education is being demanded of the South African education system in order for it to become a more egalitarian force in the labour market and in general. Senior economics lecturer at the University of Stellenbosch, Dr Nic Spaull, states that a child’s race, birth province and parental wealth determine the child’s educational opportunities. Integrated education program impact study of SMRS using early grade reading assessment in three provinces in South Africa. Children may have a low risk of suffering from COVID-19, but protecting the teachers and administration staff in crowded schools will be hard. Title. Public schools in poorer areas will continue to struggle to deliver high quality education and will also find social distancing all but impossible, with overcrowded classrooms and too few teachers. At the time, the education system was segregated and unequal. Google Scholar. The bifurcation of the musical arts education sector in South Africa into its public and private dimensions reproduces inequality along lines of class, race and geography. Education and state—South Africa. A lot has changed for the better in South Africa's education system - but inequality remains a thorn in the country's side. […]. Who Is Really To Blame For SA’s Jobs Crisis? The socio-economic status of children is one of the most important factors influencing learner outcomes. Inequality manifests itself through a skewed income distribution, unequal access to opportunities, and regional disparities. Without regular employment, a regular wage cannot be guaranteed and thus it is almost impossible to consistently invest in your child’s education. […] These structures control access to quality education, employment and health care. South Africa backwards since 1990 in terms of Millennium De vel opment G oals 2, 4, 5 and 6, those conce rned with health and educa t ion. Yet, there are important misconceptions in some of the arguments about the chronic underfunding of education and social inequality as it affects ‘poor’ and ‘middle’ class access to higher education In South Africa the former President of the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL), for example, was able to promise university students that all education in South Africa would be free if the mines were nationalised 7, even though the arithmetic shows that this clearly would not be possible. This inequality manifests in the extremely poor results produced by – mostly dysfunctional – schools across the country. But prolonged shutdowns have aggravated existing inequalities. The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect The Daily Vox’s editorial policy. Since Lockdown was announced seven weeks ago, there has been much talk of an education crisis in the country, as young people on the economic margins have struggled without the resources to learn from home. Rigorous planning, government assistance and community support can certainly improve the return to schools but, these measures are not likely to improve the government’s capacity to fundamentally rework a system that still favours the wealthy elite and disadvantages the less affluent. These well-resourced schools are much more appealing to teachers with their sizeable paychecks, manageable class sizes and numerous perks such as subsidised housing and fee exemptions for educators’ children. Meanwhile, in the affluent suburb of Newlands, Natalie reports that her children are ‘playing board games which will improve their math skills … their computer skills are improving from using Google classroom, they are learning to touch type, and they have kept up with practicing their musical instruments. In South Africa, the minority white population retained control of the government when the then-Union of South Africa gained full independence from the United Kingdom in 1931. Low growth and rising unemployment have contributed to the persistence of inequality. However, as Motsepe’s quote suggests, those returning to school would not be returning to a level playing field. HC .Z I . Most of the country’s pupils come from disadvantaged backgrounds. Image courtesy of Codi. Edit. Its impact is strongly felt by everyone across all sectors within and beyond South Africa. Equality in education has also levelled out income inequality. The South African education system, characterized by crumbling infrastructure, overcrowded classrooms and relatively poor educational outcomes, is perpetuating inequality and as a result failing too many of its children, with the poor hardest hit according to a new report published by Amnesty International today. In education (the most crucial, in my view), these inequalities are growing. This inequality manifests in … The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources. The following statistics from TIMSS 2015 help put things into perspective: 84% of Grade 5 learners attending independent schools can do basic mathematics in accordance with international norms, compared to 67% in fee-charging public schools and only 25% in no-fee public schools. South Africa’s education system is complex, with historical inequalities dating back to apartheid. This may not even be the worst case scenario: an Amnesty International team reporting on Gauteng and the Eastern Cape recently witnessed class sizes of up to 70. The quality of high school education in South Africa. In conclusion I quote leading educationalist in South Africa, Jonathan Jansen, from a book he is co-authoring with Nic Spaull: “Put plainly, a black child born to poor parents in a deeply rural area while attending a dysfunctional school on average has little to no chance of escaping a life of poverty despite the education received.”. What’s more worrying is that these exit numbers only represent only a fraction of learners who were in the system in previous years. But even this may be outside the reach of poorer families. ‘E-learning was for the middle and upper classes leaving behind the working class to fend for themselves’, writes Ayanda, in Khayelitsha township. resources for higher education. The ANC Youth League Is Dead. Since educational outcomes directly determine labour market participation, black parents with low levels of education are victims of “sustained unemployment” as Spaull phrases it. The fact that only a few people can afford to send their children to well-resourced, fee-charging schools widens inequalities. As an obviously unequal country, South Africa provides an excellent opportunity to test the claim that even with large quantitative differences in achievement, qualitative differences will matter. With such obvious disparities at play, there seems to be a clear case for re-opening schools. But … This article reviews policy and practice in the post-apartheid era to provide new insight into the crisis unfolding in public schools. Piper, B. In Ramaphosa settlement, Zizipho writes that those who live in a one-room house with children often find ‘if they need to cook, they have to take children out before they cook’. In this article, I explore the utility of effectively maintained inequality theory in examining educational inequality in South Africa at the end of the apartheid era. Google Scholar. They affect the basic human needs of survival and welfare. In 2015, 27.9 percent of black Africans were unemployed compared to 7 percent of white people. Zaahedah Vally is an educationalist in the making, pursuing a Masters in Development and Economics at the Wits School of Governance, whilst fulfilling the role of research officer at JET Education Services. A study carried out by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) in 2007 showed that South African Grade 6 teachers with high disciplinary knowledge in mathematics are largely employed in top performing schools. To accept cookies, click continue. As Esethu, from Khayelitsha, writes, ‘I believe that the government is gambling with the lives of our siblings because they will have to travel by public transport which on its own is a health risk.’. Attacks On EFF Are Attempts To Shrink Radical Politics In South…, Zindzi Mandela, And The Limits On Black Pain. Leafy suburbs like Sandton boast world-class institutions with top-of-art facilities, whilst neighbouring Alexandra township schools are often victims of violence, poor infrastructure and a lack of resources. Before getting to the matric 2013 results, let me summarize some of the findings from the numerous studies highlighting South Africa’s ongoing educational inequalities: 1) The SACMEQ study of 2007 showed that there are huge geographic inequalities in the country with 41% of rural Grade 6 children being functionally illiterate compared to only 13% of urban grade 6 children. Our paper begins by identifying the current situation regarding inequalities in higher education access by wealth and gender across countries in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, which are furthest from achieving the new goal, drawing on recent data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 35 countries. The South African Education Department has worked to make its public education system fairer for two decades. South Africa’s education system has another problem: teachers not turning up . South African Schooling: The Enigma of Inequality provides an incredibly detailed account of inequality in South Africa’s education system. Thought Leadership • 16 November, 2020. Their educational outcomes are compromised from the day they set foot inside these institutions. In Education – as in many sectors of life in South Africa – there are no simple solutions. educational inequalities in post-apartheid South Africa, and an HIV/AIDS epidemic. The higher education sector is not spared from this wrath. But Motsepe was not talking during quarantine. Health inequality in South Africa: a systematic review Chinwe C. Obuaku-Igwe Abstract This study presents a review of key empirical studies on health inequalities in South Africa with the aim of contributing to a comparative examination of social inequalities in health across different countries in Europe and other parts of the World. It is clear that fee-paying schools drive the inequality wedge even further between the majority of black learners and other races who are privileged enough to be attending well-resourced, fee-charging schools. —dc A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. (Photo: Amnesty International) Titled Broken and Unequal: The State of Education in South Africa… education have tended to increase inequality. Given this, the concluding section teases out possible education policy responses. This means that children from poor households are forced to attend no-fee paying schools that are under-resourced and dysfunctional. While access to education has been universally granted to each child in South Africa, the quality of the education has not been guaranteed, particularly for black children. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. What is clear is that current school goers in disadvantaged areas are victims of their circumstances, having only committed the crime of being poor. Patsie, who lives in Khayelitsha, writes, ‘in the township [where] schools have more than 40 children in each class, the spread of corona will be too much’. With public libraries closed, Assie reflects in Khayelitsha, those who ‘live in homes where the environment is not conducive for studying’ are likely to see their grades suffer. This raises the question: what prospects do these youth face post-school with the poor quality education received for years? January 30, 2020. You have entered an incorrect email address! One reason for the racial disparities in South Africa’s education system is the racial disparity in poverty. This inequality could not be more prevalent than in our education system. How can we disrupt educational inequality? These debates have ricocheted through our Lockdown Diaries project, which draws together seventy participants from across Cape Town’s informal settlements, occupied buildings, townships and suburbs to reflect on the impacts of COVID-19 on everyday life. Online education in Lebanon: Cementing existing inequalities. For Khaya, also in Khayelitsha, the problems stretch beyond the classroom: ‘in public schools they share utilities, bathrooms and even textbooks’, he explains. While race was the determining factor of educational opportunity during apartheid, nowadays both race and class are key determinants. With Lockdown restrictions easing across the country, debates are spiralling over whether schools should reopen, as per the government’s plans, or whether they should remain closed. Even the government’s attempts to make education accessible on the TV and radio has not been enough to bridge the divide of South Africa’s unequal access to resources. Only half the learners who enrolled in Grade 1 in 2007 wrote the National Senior Certificate exam in 2018. So I am not worried about them academically.’. What’s more, children who come from these backgrounds often do not have the family support to carry them through their vital years of schooling. And it does a remarkable job of using government and survey data, along with detailed accounts of policy negotiation and reform, to explain why it is that the more things seems to change, the more they stay the same. While the department of basic education can boast vast amounts of bachelor passes – 172 043 in 2018 – the 2016 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) tells a different story around quality education, writes ZAHEEDAH VALLY. This inequality could not be more prevalent than in our education system. ‘Education in South Africa is in crisis,’ declared Tshepo Motsepe, General Secretary of Equal Education, a social movement campaigning for ‘quality and equality in South African schools’. The challenges faced by Lebanon in the past year have been immense. The government needs to act fast by amending policies and restructuring schools before we tread further down this dark path. Prior to 2009, these two departments were represented in a single Department of Education. South Africa– Blue Sky Publications (Pty) Ltd T/A TheSouthAfrican Number: 2005/028472/07. As one history recounted, “While white schooling was free, compulsory and expanding, black education was sorely neglected. Indeed, South Africa did realise a rapid expansion of education, including increased enrolment, but the quality of education has remained poor and largely characterised by inequality. South Africa is a land of hope, opportunity and most glaringly, a land of stark inequality. Nor is it just young people who are at risk due to the return to school. Public schools in peri-urban and rural areas make up 75% of the schooling system in South Africa – populated by poor black children mostly – and continue to be overcrowded, under-resourced and downright dysfunctional. The same colliding crises that put poorer residents at risk in the crisis also hamper attempts at recovery. The widening gap between the haves and have-nots impacts poverty profoundly: poverty is driven by inequality and cannot be addressed without resolving the root causes of inequality. Given that the legacy of apartheid still lives on very strongly in most facets of South African life, it comes as no surprise that the parents of current black school goers have poor educational outcomes because of the dysfunctional schools they themselves attended, some in the former Bantustans. The former white urban areas are still more prosperous with well-resourced schools, while townships have to contend with under-performing schools. In their analysis, the authors contrast themes from young people’s letters to an agony aunt with dominant themes in the sociology of education in South Africa. South Africa suffers among the highest levels of inequality in the world when measured by the commonly used Gini index. 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