Stevens successfully convinced Roosevelt of the necessity and feasibility of this alternative scheme. They eventually settled on a plan for a two-level, lock-based canal.  Investment was made in extensive sanitation projects, including city water systems, fumigation of buildings, spraying of insect-breeding areas with oil and larvicide, installation of mosquito netting and window screens, and elimination of stagnant water. The earliest European colonists recognized this potential, and several proposals for a canal were made. , Great Britain attempted to develop a canal in 1843. The Panama Canal Authority completed a five billion dollar expansion in 2016, introducing a new set of locks, adding a new, wider sea lane able to haul twice as many supertankers between the Atlantic and the Pacific as before. ) This has been coupled with a steady rise in average ship size and in the numbers of Panamax vessels passing through the canal, so that the total tonnage carried rose from 227.9 million PC/UMS tons in fiscal year 1999 to a then record high of 312.9 million tons in 2007, and falling to 299.1 million tons in 2009. The resulting small lake Miraflores became a fresh water supply for Panama City.  The work done thus far was preparation, rather than construction. In 1908, the United States Navy requested that an increased width of at least 36 m (118 ft) to allow the passage of US naval ships.  The total number of ocean-going transits increased from 11,725 in 2003 to 13,233 in 2007, falling to 12,855 in 2009. The second was controlling disease which decimated workers and management alike under the original French attempt.  Even after all that effort, about 5,600 workers died of disease and accidents during the US construction phase of the canal. The dense jungle was alive with venomous snakes, insects, and spiders, but the worst challenges were yellow fever, malaria, and other tropical diseases, which killed thousands of workers; by 1884, the death rate was over 200 per month. Diseases of yellow fever and malaria were dangerous obstacles that had already defeated French efforts to construct a panama canal in the 1880s.  Traffic through the canal increased from 230 million tons in 2000 to nearly 300 million tons in 2006. Completed in 1935, the dam created Madden Lake (later Alajeula Lake), which provides additional water storage for the canal. Hailed as one of the great achievements of the 20th Century, the Panama Canal connects 160 countries and 1,700 ports around the world. The idea of the Panama canal dates back to 1513, when Vasco Núñez de Balboa first crossed the isthmus. President Roosevelt appointed Colonel George Washington Goethals the new Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal project on February 26, 1907.  Work was suspended on May 15, and in the ensuing scandal, known as the Panama affair, some of those deemed responsible were prosecuted, including Gustave Eiffel. David Skidmore, "Foreign Policy Interest Groups and Presidential Power: Jimmy Carter and the Battle over Ratification of the Panama Canal Treaties" in Herbert D. Rosenbaum, Alexej Ugrinsky, eds. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly, who errs and comes short again and again; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions, and spends himself in a worthy cause; who, at the best, knows in the end the triumph of high achievement; and who, at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat. On September 7, 1977, US President Jimmy Carter signed the Torrijos-Carter Treaty setting in motion the process of transferring control of the canal to Panama. The Miraflores dams are an 825-metre (2,707 ft) earth dam connecting the Miraflores Locks in the west and a 150-metre (492 ft) concrete spillway dam east of the locks. He improved drilling and dirt-removal equipment at the Culebra Cut for greater efficiency, revising the inadequate provisions in place for soil disposal. William H. Aspinwall, who had won the federal subsidy to build and operate the Pacific mail steamships at around the same time, benefited from the gold discovery. One hundred years ago this month the first ship traversed the Panama Canal, the waterway that unites the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The railroad also had to be comprehensively upgraded with heavy-duty, double-tracked rails over most of the line to accommodate new rolling stock. Nicaragua's new waterway will be a higher-capacity alternative to the 99-year-old Panama Canal (pictured), which is currently being widened at the cost of $5.2bn. Two small dams at Miraflores impound Miraflores Lake, and a dam at Pedro Miguel encloses the south end of the Culebra Cut (essentially an arm of Lake Gatun). In 2006 it was anticipated that by 2011, 37 percent of the world's container ships would be too large for the present canal, and hence a failure to expand would result in a significant loss of market share. Now it's going through a multi-billion dollar makeover, one of the largest construction projects the world has ever seen. The outbreak of World War I caused the cancellation of any official "grand opening" celebration, and the canal officially opened to commercial traffic on 15 August 1914 with the transit of the SS Ancon. By the time Goethals took over, the construction infrastructure had been created or overhauled and expanded from the French effort and he was soon able to begin construction in earnest. Started in 2007, this fee has greatly increased the tolls for such ships. The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty allowed the U.S. to build the Panama Canal and provided for perpetual control of a zone five miles wide on either side of the canal. ", It was announced in July 2009 that the Belgian dredging company Jan De Nul, together with a consortium of contractors consisting of the Spanish Sacyr Vallehermoso, the Italian Impregilo, and the Panamanian company Grupo Cusa, had been awarded the contract to build the six new locks for US$3.1 billion, which was one billion less than the next highest competing bid due to having a concrete budget 71 percent smaller than that of the next bidder and allotted roughly 25 percent less for steel to reinforce that concrete. Since then, the canal has been administered by the Panama Canal Authority (Autoridad de Canal de Panama, or ACP). The expansion plan had two new flights of locks built parallel to, and operated in addition to, the old locks: one east of the existing Gatun locks, and one southwest of the Miraflores locks, each supported by approach channels.  The new Panama Canal Zone Control was overseen by the Isthmian Canal Commission (ICC) during construction. The Panama Canal (Spanish: Canal de Panamá) is an artificial 82 km (51 mi) waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. According to the New York Daily Tribune, August 24, 1843, Barings of London and the Republic of New Granada entered into a contract for construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Darien (Isthmus of Panama). Each lock chamber has three water-saving basins, which reuse 60 percent of the water in each transit. After the 1869 completion of the Suez Canal, France thought that an apparently similar project to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans could be carried out with little difficulty.  On March 23, 2016, the expansion inauguration was set for June 26, 2016.  By September 2014, the new gates were projected to be open for transit at the "beginning of 2016. He argued in favor of a canal using a lock system to raise and lower ships from a large reservoir 85 ft (26 m) above sea level. 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